Did you know that novae and supernovae stars both explode? This results in the release of some of their material into space. Their luminosity reaches a peak at varying intervals, at which point it begins to rapidly decrease. It would appear that a new celestial body has been brought into existence.
What are novae and supernovae stars?
A star that abruptly and dramatically brightens, known as a nova, and then begins to gradually dim over time, may persist in existence for an extended period of time. A supernova is another type of explosion, but this one destroys or transforms the star it occurs on.
Supernovae stars are significantly more common to spot in photographs than novae, which are much less common.
Both novae and supernovae stars provide new elements to the universe, which can then be incorporated into the formation of new stars.
Are novae the new stars?
A star that suddenly arose where there was nothing was known as a nova, which literally translates to “new star,” in days gone by. However, this moniker is incorrect because these stars have been around for a very long time before they could even be seen by the human eye.
There are perhaps ten or twelve new novae that are discovered in the Milky Way every year. However, some of them are either too far away to be observed or are veiled by interstellar debris.
It is far simpler to spot a nova in one of the neighboring galaxies than in our own. Within a couple of days or hours, the brightness of a nova can rise by several thousand times its initial value.
Following that, it enters a transition phase, during which it gradually dims and then gradually brightens again; after that, it gradually dims back to the level of brightness it was at initially.
Novas are stars that have reached a late stage in their evolutionary process. They detonate as a result of their outer layers having accumulated an excessive amount of helium as a result of nuclear processes and growing at a rate that is too rapid to be contained.
The star suddenly brightens, grows in brightness, and then returns to its usual state after exploding a small portion of its mass in the form of a layer of gas.
The surviving star is a white dwarf, the smallest component of a binary system, and it is constantly losing matter in favor of the larger star. This results in the white dwarf becoming less massive over time. Dwarf novae, which manifest themselves repeatedly at predetermined intervals, are susceptible to this occurrence.
What are supernovae stars?
The explosion of a supernova is significantly more dramatic and devastating than that of a nova, but it also occurs much less frequently. This happens very seldom in our galaxy, and despite the huge rise in brightness they experience, only a small percentage of them can be seen with the human eye.
Prior to 1987, there had only ever been three supernovae discovered throughout history. The one that emerged in 1054 and whose remnants are known as the Crab nebula, is the most well-known of these events.
Similar to novae, supernovae stars are most frequently observed in galaxies that are not our own. Because of this, the most recent supernova, which was spotted in the southern hemisphere on February 24, 1987, originated in a satellite galaxy known as the Large Magellanic Cloud.
Astronomers are putting a lot of effort into studying this supernova since it has some peculiar characteristics.
The gravitational collapse that occurs in the late stages of the fast growth of extremely massive stars results in the explosion of supernovae stars. The explosion of the star occurs when the pressure generated by the nuclear processes is unable to continue supporting the weight of the star’s outer layers. This type of explosion is known as a Type II supernova.
A Type I supernova begins similarly to a nova. It is a component of a binary system that obtains its supply of fuel flow by stealing material from the component with which it works in tandem.
After a supernova explosion, almost nothing is left behind other than a layer of expanding gases. One well-known example is the Crab nebula, which contains a pulsar, also known as a neutron star, that spins very quickly at its core.
How are supernovae stars formed?
The “final hurrah” of a huge star that is on its way out can trigger a certain kind of supernova. This takes place when a star with a mass at least five times that of our sun explodes with a tremendously powerful force.
Massive supernovae stars consume enormous quantities of nuclear fuel at their centers, also known as their cores. This results in a massive amount of energy being produced, which causes the core to rapidly heat up. The nuclear burning of supernovae stars creates heat, which in turn generates pressure.
This pressure prevents the star from collapsing under its own weight.
A star maintains its stability by maintaining equilibrium between two opposing forces. The gravity of the star exerts pressure on it, attempting to roll it up into the tiniest, most compact ball it can.
However, the intense pressure that is exerted on the surrounding space is caused by the burning of nuclear material in the star’s core. This outward push fights against the gravitational pull that is exerted inwards.
What is it that binds the stars together? It’s a delicate balancing act between the gravitational pull of the star pulling inward and the outward pressure and heat of the star’s core.
When a huge star runs out of fuel, it begins to cool off and eventually disappear. This results in a decrease in the pressure. The force of gravity ultimately triumphs, and the star disintegrates all at once.
Imagine something with a mass one million times that of the Earth exploding within a minute and a half. The collapse occurs so suddenly that it triggers the production of huge shock waves, which in turn force the star’s outer layers to detonate.