When we talk about matter in the universe, we take everything that has mass into consideration. All matter in the universe is made up of particles and atoms. They are like little pieces that come together to form everything we see.
But they also form another kind of matter in the universe, one that we can’t even see: dark matter. In fact, most of the matter in the universe is dark matter.
Anything that has mass, even if it is very small, radiates gravity. This is even true for human beings. Despite the vacuum of space, matter is drawn to the force of gravity there.
From atoms and tiny molecules to planets, stars, and enormous galaxy clusters, they all cling together because of their strong attraction. Gravity pulls matter together.
However, most of the matter in the universe is not contained in galaxies but in huge intergalactic regions.
Visible Matter in the Universe
The fraction of matter in the universe that we can see is merely 5 percent of the makeup of the universe. Visible matter is termed ordinary matter or baryonic matter.
Atoms make up the bulk of everyday matter. Solid, liquid, gaseous, and plasma are all possible states. It shifts from one condition to another by adding or releasing heat. Most of the visible matter in the Universe is plasma, as it is the plasma that generates the stars.
There is another type of matter in the universe that we cannot perceive. This is dark, or invisible, matter. According to some estimates, dark matter accounts for one-quarter of the known universe. This suggests that there is a lot more dark matter than visible matter.
Dark matter neither emits nor reflects light. It does not release any visible or invisible radiation. That is why we are unable to notice it. We know it exists, though, because it emits gravity, which our equipment detects. Its gravity is so strong that it propels massive galaxy clusters.
The nature of dark matter is yet unknown. Although it is assumed to be made up of neutrinos and other as-yet undiscovered particles,
Types of Particles in the Universe
All matter in the universe is made up of particles. Each particle type has a specific purpose.
The interaction of different sorts of particles allows the universe as we know it to exist.
There are two types of particles in the universe: fermions and bosons.
- Fermions make up the bulk of matter.
- The bosons are in charge of applying four fundamental forces to this mass: electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, and gravitational force.
The tiniest components or chunks into which matter may be separated are known as elementary particles.
- Quarks are particles that join in groups of three to generate bigger particles like protons and neutrons.
- Leptons: These are extremely light particles that include electrons, muons, and neutrinos.
- Photons are in charge of electromagnetics.
- Gluons are in charge of powerful nuclear forces.
- W and Z bosons are responsible for nuclear forces that are weak;
- Graviton, although not yet observed, is responsible for gravity.
- The Higgs boson: the particle’s mass is caused by the Higgs boson. It explains everything we perceive, which is why it is known as the “God particle.”
What are hadrons?
When many elementary particles collide, they generate composite particles known as hadrons.
Baryons are compound fermions. Protons and neutrons are the most well-known. Mesons are compound bosons. The most well-known is the pion. The CERN hadron collider is a significant experiment in particle physics.
It brings together scientists from all across the world. It accelerates particles (hadrons) nearly to the speed of light and pushes them together to investigate how they interact. CERN uses these experiments to learn about previously unknown kinds of particles, the nature of the universe, their origins, and how forces interact with one another.